Articles of faith

God Main articles: God in Islam and Allah Medallion showing "Allah" in Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey. Islam's most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawhīd (Arabic: توحيد‎). God is described in chapter 112 of the Qur'an as:[28] "Say: He is God, the One and Only; God, the Eternal, Absolute; He begetteth not, nor is He begotten; And there is none like unto Him."(112:1-4) Muslims and Jews repudiate the Christian doctrine of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus, comparing it to polytheism. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and Muslims are not expected to visualize God.[29][30][31][32] God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful" (See Names of God in Islam).[33]

Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God’s sheer command, “‘Be’ and so it is,”[34] and that the purpose of existence is to worship God.[35] He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in need or distress calls him.[36] There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than (his) jugular vein."[37] The reciprocal nature is mentioned in the hadith qudsi, "I am as My servant thinks (expects) I am."[38]

Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh (Arabic: إله‎) is the term used for a deity or a god in general.[39] Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or Ḵẖudā in Urdu.

Angels
Belief in angels is fundamental to the faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel (Arabic: ملك‎ malak) means "messenger", like its counterparts in Hebrew (malakh) and Greek (angelos). According to the Qur'an, angels do not possess free will, and therefore worship and obey God in total obedience. Angels' duties include communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. Muslims believe that angels are made of light. They are described as "messengers with wings—two, or three, or four (pairs): He [God] adds to Creation as He pleases.

Revelations
Main articles: Islamic holy books, Quran, and Wahy See also: History of the Quran
Quran
Al-Qurʾān القرآن
Quran calligraphy
Text
Content
Reading
Translations
History
Exegesis
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Category Islam portal v t e

The first sura in a Qur'anic manuscript by Hattat Aziz Efendi The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospels), had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both.[5] The Qur'an (literally, “Reading” or “Recitation”) is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal word of God and is widely regarded as the finest literary work in the Arabic language.[41][42]

Muslims believe that the verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl) on many occasions between 610 CE until his death on June 8, 632 CE.[43] While Muhammad was alive, all of these revelations were written down by his companions (sahabah), although the prime method of transmission was orally through memorization.[44]

The Qur'an is divided into 114 suras, or chapters, which combined, contain 6,236 āyāt, or verses. The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and moral issues relevant to the Muslim community.[45]

The Qur'an is more concerned with moral guidance than legal instruction, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values".[46] Muslim jurists consult the hadith("reports"), or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Qur'an and assist with its interpretation. The science of Qur'anic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.[47] Rules governing proper pronunciation is called tajwid.

Muslims usually view "the Qur'an" as the original scripture as revealed in Arabic and that any translations are necessarily deficient, which are regarded only as commentaries on the Qur'an